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Biological and Environmental Sciences

Glenn E. White, Chair
Debbie M. Johnson, Fiscal Manager
Raymond T. Heinrich, Director of Laboratory Services and Hazardous Waste Manager

The Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences at Longwood provides fundamental training for students interested in biological science, environmental science, geography, and earth science. Students interested in biology can earn a bachelor's degree or a minor while those interested in environmental science, geography, and earth science can earn minors in those respective areas. The Department also offers curricula that prepare students to transfer to professional schools in a number of health-oriented professions.

The Department further contributes to the University's mission of developing Citizen Leaders through its commitment to coursework in multiple goals in the General Education program as well as the curriculum in Liberal Studies. In addition to helping students become scientifically literate, the Department also seeks to help its students develop both critical and independent thinking skills through coursework and student research opportunities.

The Department's commitment to excellence in the major and minor programs as well as its contributions to General Education and Liberal Studies is evident in its commitment to institutional assessment. Senior biology majors are required to take a comprehensive achievement test appropriate for their major. The purpose of the test, given in both the spring and fall terms, is to assess the progress of the majors and the effectiveness of the program. Additionally, courses contributing to the University's General Education program are assessed each semester.

BIOLOGY PROGRAM

Faculty

Thomas S. Akre, PhD, Assistant Professor of Biology
Consuelo J. Alvarez, PhD, Assistant Professor of Biology
David W. Buckalew, PhD, Associate Professor of Biology and Director of Health Pre-Professional Programs
Alix D. Dowling Fink, PhD, Associate Professor of Biology
Mark L. Fink, PhD, Assistant Professor of Biology
G. Edward Hooks, III, PhD, Assistant Professor of Biology
Mary E. Lehman, PhD, Associate Professor of Biology
Amanda J. Lentz, PhD, Lecturer of Biology
Donald A. Merkle, PhD, Professor of Biology
Glenn E. White, PhD, Associate Professor of Biology and Chair

The biology major at Longwood provides training in many areas of the biological sciences so that graduates may pursue graduate study or careers in research, industry, teaching, medicine, dentistry, or allied health fields. To ensure that students have a broad background in the diverse field of biological sciences, each student must take the following courses: The Unity of Life, The Diversity of Life, Evolution, Genetics, General Ecology, and Unifying Biological Principles. In addition, students must choose a specialization in one of the following tracks: molecular, ecology, organismic, or health. Students who plan to pursue careers in medicine, dentistry, veterinary medicine, or other health-related areas may wish to consider the health track option.

Students may take a maximum of 4 credits total in internship (BIOL 292, 392, 492) and research (BIOL 496) courses for quality points (A, B, C, and D grades). Beyond 4 credits, such courses must be taken on a pass/fail basis.

A student may seek a secondary teaching endorsement in biology. This program consists of courses required for the biology major as well as EASC 300; EDUC 245, 260, 265, 370, 380, 430, 455, 484, 487; SCED 352; SPED 489; and the professional semester consisting of 12 hours in the senior year. If an additional endorsement in chemistry or physics is desired, the student must minor in that discipline and meet all state-mandated core requirements for that endorsement. Interested students should meet with secondary science education faculty for advising on preparation for secondary science teaching.

BIOLOGY MAJOR, BA or BS DEGREE

A. General Education Core Requirement/41 credits.
PHYS 101 or PHYS 201 is recommended for General Education Goal 6.
PHIL 315 or 316 is required for General Education Goal 13.

B. Additional Degree Requirements
For BA Degree/6 credits
Foreign Language/3 credits
Humanities/3 credits
For BS Degree/7 credits
Mathematics/Computer Science/3 credits
CHEM 111/4 credits

C. Major Requirements/58 credits
Core Curriculum (required of all biology majors)
BIOL 121 The Unity of Life/4 credits
BIOL 122 The Diversity of Life/4 credits
BIOL 324 Genetics/4 credits
BIOL 341 General Ecology/4 credits
BIOL 399 Evolution/3 credits
BIOL 400 Unifying Biological Principles/3 credits
CHEM 111 Fundamentals of Chemistry I/4 credits
(satisfied by Additional Degree Requirements)
CHEM 112 Fundamentals of Chemistry II/4 credits
CHEM 205 Organic Chemistry I/3 credits
or CHEM 305 Organic Chemistry I/3 credits
CHEM 206 Organic Chemistry II/3 credits
or CHEM 306 Organic Chemistry II/3 credits
CHEM 307 Organic Chemistry Laboratory I/1 credit
CHEM 308 Organic Chemistry Laboratory II/1 credit
PHYS 101 General Physics I/4 credits (satisfied if taken as General Education Goal 6)
or PHYS 201 University Physics I/4 credits (satisfied if taken as General Education Goal 6)*
PHYS 102 General Physics II/4 credits
or PHYS 202 University Physics II/4 credits
*PHYS 101 is a prerequisite for PHYS 102. PHYS 201 is a prerequisite for PHYS 202.

Biology majors must choose one of the following tracks:

Ecology:
BIOL 300 Biostatistics and Experimental Design/4 credits
BIOL 430 Conservation Biology/4 credits
or BIOL 435 Advanced Ecology/4 credits or BIOL 361 Aquatic Ecology/4 credits
BIOL electives/6 credits
Choose one of the following:
BIOL 410 Field Ornithology/6 credits
BIOL 405 Field Mammalogy/6 credits
BIOL 441 Field Ecology/6 credits
BIOL 443 Field Botany/6 credits

Molecular:
BIOL 304 Microbiology/4 credits
BIOL 412 Biochemistry/4 credits
BIOL 426 Cell Biology/4 credits
Biology electives/8 credits

Organismic:
BIOL 303 Vertebrate Morphology/4 credits
BIOL 306 Vertebrate Physiology/4 credits
BIOL 308 Plant Form and Function/4 credits
Biology electives/8 credits

Health:
BIOL 206 Human Anatomy and Physiology/4 credits
BIOL 207 Human Anatomy and Physiology/4 credits
BIOL 304 Microbiology/4 credits
BIOL 412 Biochemistry/4 credits
Biology Electives/4 credits
The health track is designed for students planning further study leading to a health career, such as in medicine, dentistry, veterinary medicine, nursing, physical and occupational therapy, and medical technology.

D. General Electives BA Degree (non-teaching majors)/15 credits
General Electives BS Degree (non-teaching majors)/14 credits

E. Secondary Teaching Endorsement, Grades 6-12/42 credits
Must take SCED 352/4 credits and EASC 300/3 credits in addition to Professional Education requirements.

* For additional endorsement to teach Chemistry
Minor in Chemistry/24 credits.

* For additional endorsement to teach Physics
Minor in Physics/24 credits.

* Students seeking endorsement in these areas must meet criteria established by the State Department of Education.

F. Total Credits Required for BA or BS in Biology/120
Total Credits Required for BA in Biology with Secondary Teaching Endorsement/151
Total Credits Required for BS in Biology with Secondary Teaching Endorsement/148

BIOLOGY MINOR

Students who are interested in pursuing a biology minor should contact the chair of the Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences. The minor must include:

BIOL 121 The Unity of Life/4 credits
BIOL 122 The Diversity of Life/4 credits
8 semester hours of biology at the 200 level or above.
4 semester hours of biology at the 300 level or above.
4 semester hours of biology electives
TOTAL/24 credits

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES MINOR

This interdisciplinary minor serves those students majoring in any subject who are interested in environmental science. Environmental science imparts an integrative scientific view of our world by focusing on the interactions of biology, geology, hydrology, and atmospheric sciences. Additionally, environmental science provides critical insight into human interactions with these components. Grades below C- will not apply toward the fulfillment of minor requirements. Students choosing this minor must make appropriate selections from each of the following groups:

*Group A/8 credits
Select one of the following blocks:
BIOL 101 Biological Concepts/4 credits
or BIOL 121 The Unity of Life/4 credits
BIOL 341 General Ecology/4 credits
or
CHEM 112 Fundamentals of Chemistry II/4 credits
CHEM 351 Instrumental Analysis I/4 credits

Group B/3 credits
Choose one of the following:
BIOL 364 Man and the Environment/3 credits
HLTH 310 Environmental Health/3 credits

Group C/4 credits
Choose one of the following:
CHEM 101 General Chemistry/4 credits
CHEM 111 Fundamentals of Chemistry I/4 credits

Group D/3 credits
Choose one of the following:
ECON 314 Environmental and Resource Economics/3 credits
EASC 354 Hydrology/3 credits
EASC 355 Climatology/3 credits

Group E/Take 6 credits from the following:
BIOL 405 Field Mammology/6 credits
BIOL 410 Field Ornithology/6 credits
BIOL 441 Field Ecology/6 credits
BIOL 443 Field Botany/6 credits

Total required hours: 24

* Biology majors seeking this minor must take Chemistry 112 and 351; Chemistry majors seeking this minor must take Biology 101/341. All other majors may choose one of the two options indicated in Group A.

BIOLOGY COURSE DESCRIPTIONS (BIOL)

A special fee is charged for all courses with laboratories.
General Education Course *
Writing Intensive Course **
Speaking Intensive Course ***

Biology 101. Biological Concepts and Applications. This course introduces students to the nature, methods, and applications of biology. Conceptual topics include methods of biological investigation, molecular and cellular features of living things, mechanisms for the evolution and continuity of life, and ecological interactions among individuals, populations and their environment. Issues of contemporary and historical importance will be used to illustrate conceptual topics and demonstrate biology's relevance to the quality of human life and history and future of human civilizations. This course does not fulfill requirements for the biology major. 3 lecture and one 2-hour lab periods. 4 credits. *

Biology 114. Fundamentals of Life Science.  An inquiry into the common features of life at the molecular, cellular, and organismic levels. Emphasis on classification, life cycles, metabolic processes, genetics, ecology, evolution, and importance in society. For Liberal Studies majors or students seeking licensure. Does not meet the requirements for a biology major or minor. 3 lecture and one 2-hour lab periods. 4 credits.

Biology 121. The Unity of Life. The first of a two-semester introduction to Longwood-level study of biology for biology and health pre-professional majors. Major topics include the molecular and cellular basis of life, energy and life, photosynthesis and cellular respiration, classical and molecular genetics, mechanisms of evolution, and classification schemes. Open only to biology majors and minors, environmental sciences minors, and health pre-professional majors. Biology majors must earn at least a C- in this course before taking advanced courses. 3 lecture and one 2-hour lab periods. 4 credits.

Biology 122. The Diversity of Life. The second of a two-semester introduction to Longwood-level study of biology for biology and health pre-professional majors. Major topics include eubacteria and archaea; protists; fungi; plant structure, reproduction and development; major animal phyla; animal reproduction and development; and ecological relationships, populations, communities, and ecosystems. Open only to biology majors and minors, environmental sciences minors, and health pre-professional majors. Biology majors must earn at least a C- in this course before taking advanced courses. 3 lecture and one 2-hour lab periods. 4 credits.

Biology 126 (Chemistry 126, Earth Science 126, Physics 126). Essential Laboratory Techniques. Good laboratory techniques, skills and safe practices are taught by actual practice in the laboratory. 1 credit.

Biology 206, 207. Human Anatomy and Physiology I and II. Basic physiological principles and integrated anatomy and physiology of the integumentary, digestive, respiratory, cardiovascular and lymphatic systems (BIOL 206) and the skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine, excretory and reproductive systems (BIOL 207). BIOL 206 is recommended as a prerequisite for 207. 3 lecture and one 2-hour lab periods. 4 credits each semester.

Biology 292. Internship in Biology. A semester-long, on-the-job learning experience designed to apply the principles of biology. 3-15 credits.

Biology 295. Special Topics in Biology. Specialized courses on a variety of topics that may be offered periodically. 1-4 credits.

Biology 300. Biostatistics and Experimental Design. This course focuses on identifying and using proper statistical analysis techniques to solve biological problems. Scientifically valid methods of experimental design will also be emphasized. Students will learn how to apply a broad range of statistical tests commonly used in biology and other scientific disciplines, including but not limited to parametric and nonparametric analysis of variance, simple and multiple linear regression, and principal component analysis. Laboratory exercises will involve extensive use of computer software to conduct statistical analyses. 3 lecture and one 2-hour lab periods. 4 credits. ***

Biology 303. Vertebrate Morphology. A comparative study of embryonic development, anatomy and evolution in representative vertebrate groups. Prerequisite: BIOL 122. 2 lecture and two 2-hour lab periods. 4 credits.

Biology 304. Microbiology. A study of the structure, physiology and activities of micro-organisms as related to their role in nature, disease, immunological interactions, industrial processes and human affairs. Basic concepts and fundamental techniques for isolation, growth, identification and immunological reactions are stressed. Prerequisites: BIOL 121 and 122. 3 lecture and two 2-hour lab periods. 4 credits. ***

Biology 306. Vertebrate Physiology. The principal functional processes in vertebrate organs and organ systems including respiration, circulation, hormonal coordination, water balance, thermoregulation, nervous coordination, and responses to special environments. Prerequisites: CHEM 111 and BIOL 122. 3 lecture and one 3-hour lab periods. 4 credits. **

Biology 308. Plant Form and Function. The investigation of the relationship of morphology and anatomy to physiological processes in vascular plants. Emphasis on structure and metabolism of plant cells, the interactive functions of plant tissues, and the detailed structure and development of plant organs. Prerequisite: BIOL 122. 3 lecture and one 2-hour lab periods. 4 credits.

Biology 310. Diagnostic Microbiology. A study of various human pathogens and the diseases they cause, with emphasis on host-pathogen interaction including host defense mechanisms, virulence factors, and an in-depth review of the major bacterial and viral disease agents. The lab will focus on the use of diagnostic media and identification techniques used to identify disease agents. Prerequisites: BIOL 304 and CHEM 305. 3 lecture and one 3-hour lab periods. 4 credits.

Biology 311, 312. Studies Abroad. Primarily intended for transfer of credit earned abroad in courses in biology. 1-18 credits.

Biology 321. Plant Taxonomy. The morphology, classification and systematics of the vascular plants with emphasis on family characteristics. The laboratory stresses the identification and herbarium preparation of local plants collected during weekly field trips. Prerequisite: BIOL 122. 2 lecture and two 2-hour lab periods. 4 credits.

Biology 324. Genetics. A study of classical and modern genetics, including the mechanisms for the replication, continuation, variation of regulation and expression of genetic information. Prerequisites:  BIOL 121 and BIOL 122 or permission of instructor.  3 lecture and one 3-hour lab periods. 4 credits.

Biology 341 (Earth Science 341). General Ecology. The principles underlying the interrelations of groups of organisms with their environments, including the population, community and ecosystem levels of organization. The lab normally includes local field trips. Prerequisite: BIOL 122. 3 lecture and one 3-hour lab periods. 4 credits. **

Biology 342 (Earth Science 342, Geography 342). Terrestrial Biogeography.  Investigates the past and present geographic distribution of organisms on land.  This broad, interdisciplinary course will combine insights from biology, ecology, geography, and geology to examine changes in species distribution over space and time.  The course will address topics including: 1) biological patterns across the globe, 2) underlying physical factors controlling these patterns, 3) the role of earth's history in developing these patterns, 4) and implications for the conservation of plants and animals. 2 lecture periods and 1 two hour lab period. 4 credits.

Biology 361. Aquatic Ecology. A study of lakes, ponds and streams including their origin, development, morphometry, geochemistry, energy balance, productivity, and the dynamics of plant and animal communities. Laboratory includes a field trip within Virginia. Prerequisites: BIOL 122 and a semester of Chemistry is recommended. 2 lecture and two 3-hour lab periods. 4 credits.

Biology 390. Directed or Independent Study. Must be approved by the head of the department. May be repeated as 391. 1-18 credits.

Biology 392. Internship in Biology. A semester-long, on-the-job learning experience designed to apply the principles of biology. 3-15 credits.

Biology 399. Evolution. A study of the basic processes of organic evolution including the historical development of evolutionary theory, sources of variation, adaptation, natural selection, speciation, the fossil record, biogeography and major steps in evolution. Prerequisite: BIOL 324. 3 lecture periods. 3 credits. **

Biology 400. Unifying Biological Principles. An integrative study of phenomena common to all living creatures: metabolism, homeostasis, reproduction, development, inheritance, life's interactions and the environment through time and space. Themes are studied from the perspective of both cellular and organismic levels of complexity. Open only to junior and senior biology majors and minors. Prerequisite: BIOL 324. Corequisite or prerequisite: BIOL 341. 3 lecture periods. 3 credits. ** and ***

Biology 404.  Immunology:  This course focuses on the specific and non-specific immune responses with particular emphasis on the human system. Relative to each category of immune response, the interplay between immune signaling molecules and relevant cells, tissues, and organs are discussed.  Specific topics include:  antigen recognition, processing, and presentation, B/T lymphocyte maturation, activation, and differentiation, humoral immunity, cell-mediated immunity, inflammation, hypersensitivity, acute and chronic disease responses, vaccines, and the immunology of cancer.  3 lecture and one 2-hour lab periods.  4 credits.

Biology 405. Field Mammalogy. A field course emphasizing identification of common mammals in Virginia's mountain, coastal, and Piedmont regions. Students will also gain an understanding of general habitat associations, breeding behavior, and conservation issues. Additional emphasis will be placed on learning to employ standard census techniques such as small mammal and bat trapping and radio telemetry. Students will have the opportunity to contribute to a long-term research project on small mammal populations. Activities focused on Southside Virginia with additional required extended trips to other areas. Offered during summer session. 6 credits.

Biology 410. Field Ornithology. A field course emphasizing identification of birds by sight and sound in Virginia's mountain, coastal, and Piedmont regions. Students will also gain an understanding of general habitat associations, breeding behavior, and conservation issues. Census and monitoring techniques will be studied to emphasize the development of practical skills. Activities focused on Southside Virginia with additional required extended trips to other areas. Lab work, field activities, and independent study required. Offered during summer session. 6 credits.

Biology 412 (Chemistry 412). Biochemistry. A study of the chemistry of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and nucleic acids in biological systems. Prerequisite: CHEM 206 or CHEM 306 or permission of instructor. 3 lecture and one 3-hour lab periods. 4 credits.

Biology 425. Modern Genetics. A study of the structure and function of hereditary material at the molecular level. Topics include DNA-RNA structure and replication, protein synthesis, and homeostasis. Prerequisite: BIOL 324. 3 lecture and one 3-hour lab periods. 4 credits.

Biology 426. Cell Biology. A study of the structure and function of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, including plant and animal cell types. Emphasis on the structure and function of membranes, genes, ribosomes, proteins, signaling pathways, cytoskeleton, cell cycle, junctions, membrane trafficking, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticula, plastids, nuclei and nucleoli. Prerequisites: BIOL 121 and 122. 3 lecture and one 3-hour lab periods. 4 credits. **

Biology 430. Conservation Biology. A multifaceted course focused on the application of basic ecological principles to complex conservation problems. Successful conservation efforts require that biological solutions be meshed with political, social, and economic realities, and thus conservation biology is an interdisciplinary field. Class discussions and projects will apply basic concepts to the high-stakes field of endangered species management as well as local, regional, and global biodiversity conservation. Students will be required to complete research assignments independently and as a part of a functional team. 3 lecture and one 2-hour lab periods. 4 credits. ***

Biology 435. Advanced Ecology. Advanced ecological concepts will be emphasized through readings and discussions of primary literature.  Various forms of scientific writing will also be taught and practiced through multiple writing assignments.  Other miscellaneous topics related to scientific research and career preparation will also be considered.  This course is primarily designed for ecology track biology majors who plan to pursue graduate studies.  Prerequisite: BIOL 341 or BIOL 441 or permission of instructor.  3 lecture and one 2-hour lab periods. 4 credits. ** and ***

Biology 441. Field Ecology. A field course studying the fundamental concepts, principles, and terminology of ecology at the population, community, and ecosystem levels. Major emphasis is placed on learning various field sampling techniques for plants and animals in both terrestrial and aquatic environments. Students will also develop skills for using field instrumentation to measure abiotic factors. Expert consultants from other institutions and from federal and state agencies provide additional exposure to other scientific research and management perspectives and allow students to explore various career options. Overnight field trips required. Offered during summer session. Prerequisite: BIOL 122 or permission of instructor. 6 credits.

Biology 443. Field Botany. A field course emphasizing the ecology and taxonomy of local plants in their natural habitats. Daily trips are made to local biological communities where specimens are examined and collected to enhance future recognition of the plants. Students are expected to learn the scientific names and classification of the most common bryophytes, pteridophytes, wildflowers, shrubs and trees of the Virginia Piedmont, coast, and mountains. Additional emphasis is placed on the development of skills for using plant keys to determine species identity. Overnight field trips required. Offered during summer session. 6 credits.

Biology 461. Biological Seminar. Short oral presentations by students on selected, researched biological topics. May be repeated. Open to junior and senior biology majors and minors. 1 lecture period. 1 credit.

Biology 471. Ornithology. Identification, classification and morphology of birds common to Virginia. Saturday field trips. Prerequisites: BIOL 122 and permission of instructor. 3 lecture/lab periods. 2 credits.

Biology 474. Entomology. A study of insects: morphology, ecology, evolution, physiology, or taxonomy of the class or of a particular order. Prerequisites: BIOL 122 and permission of instructor. 3 lecture and one 2-hour lab periods. 4 credits.

Biology 485. The Ethics of Biology. A study of basic ethical principles coupled with student-led discussions of how these principles apply to contemporary personal and professional biological concerns. Open only to biology majors and minors. 1 credit. *

Biology 490. Directed or Independent Study. Must be approved by the head of the department. 1-18 credits.

Biology 492. Internship in Biology. A semester-long, on-the-job learning experience designed to apply the principles of biology. 3-15 credits.

Biology 495. Special Topics in Biology. Specialized courses on a variety of topics that may be offered periodically. 1-4 credits.

Biology 496. Research Projects in Biology. With the approval of a faculty member and the department chair, a student may carry out an individual research project. The nature of the project must be determined between the student and faculty member and approved by the department chair before the student may register for the course. May be repeated. 1-4 credits.

Biology 498. Honors Research in Biology. Students conduct research in biology under the direction of a faculty member and the Senior Honors Research Committee. May be repeated as 499. 3 credits. **

HEALTH-RELATED PROGRAMS

Most students interested in pursuing health-related professions will be best served by the health track option of the biology major program (described earlier in this catalog), however it should be noted that a biology degree is not an entrance requirement for most professional school programs. The health track is designed for students planning post-graduate study leading to a health career, such as in medicine, dentistry, veterinary medicine, and physical and occupational therapy. As a general rule, students applying to professional school programs will complete their four-year degree at Longwood before matriculating at the professional school.

Each student should become familiar with selected professional school(s) early in his/her academic career as course requirements for individual schools vary. Typical courses required for admission into most professional schools include: BIOL 121, BIOL 122, CHEM 111, CHEM 112, CHEM 305, CHEM 307, CHEM 306, CHEM 308, PHYS 101, PHYS 102, ENGL 150, MATH 261, and MATH 262. The four-year health track biology major curriculum will prepare students with the foundation courses necessary for the required admissions exams (MCAT, DAT, or GRE) usually taken during their junior year. As minimal preparation, students should complete the required courses listed above by the end of their junior year.

For admission into graduate or professional school, students should have a strong GPA and score competitively on the admissions exam. To be a viable candidate for admission to a medical/dental/veterinary/allied health professions school, students must also demonstrate firsthand experience in their chosen area of study. This can be accomplished by "shadowing" a clinician whereby a pre-professional student observes and assists practicing health professionals or through volunteer or paid work in a hospital, clinic, or other health setting. Course credit can be obtained for these experiences by registering for BIOL 292, 392, or 492 Internship in Biology.

In addition to the four-year health track biology major, the Department offers an additional option for exceptional students who are accepted for matriculation in professional school programs (e.g., medical, dental, veterinary) prior to their Longwood graduation. For these students the "Preparation in Pre-Dentistry, Pre-Medical, Pre-Occupational Therapy, Pre-Physical Therapy, or Pre-Veterinary Medicine B.S. degree" described below is an appropriate course of study.

The Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences also offers some specialized curricula for students interested in particular health-related specializations such as medical technology, nursing, and dental hygiene. These curricula require transfer to another institution for part of the undergraduate program of study. Information is provided later in this catalog, and interested students should contact Dr. David Buckalew, Director of Health Pre-Professional Programs, for guidance.

BIOLOGY MAJOR, BS DEGREE

Medical Technology Concentration
(Roanoke Memorial Hospital, Fairfax Hospital)

Representatives of our Affiliated Institutions
C. Barrie Cook, M.D., Medical Director, School of Medical Technology, The Fairfax Hospital, Falls Church
Janet T. Hiler, MT (ASCP), Program Director, Roanoke Memorial Hospital, Roanoke
Amy Shoemaker, MT (ASCP) MBA, Program Director, Fairfax Hospital, Falls Church
Samuel F. Vance, MD, Medical Director, School of Medical Technology, Roanoke Memorial Hospital, Roanoke

A. General Education Core Requirement/41 credits
PHYS 101 or PHYS 201 is recommended for General Education Goal 6.

B. BS Degree Additional Degree Requirements/7 credits
Mathematics/3 credits
CHEM 111 Fundamentals of Chemistry I/4 credits

C. Major Requirements/45 credits
BIOL 121 The Unity of Life/4 credits
BIOL 122 The Diversity of Life/4 credits
BIOL 206 Human Anatomy and Physiology/4 credits
BIOL 207 Human Anatomy and Physiology/4 credits
BIOL 304 Microbiology/4 credits
Biology elective (300-400 level)/4 credits
CHEM 111 Fundamentals of Chemistry I/4 credits
(satisfied in Additional Degree Requirements)
CHEM 112 Fundamentals of Chemistry II/4 credits
CHEM 305 Organic Chemistry I/3 credits
CHEM 306 Organic Chemistry II/3 credits
CHEM 307 Organic Chemistry Laboratory I/1 credit
CHEM 308 Organic Chemistry Laboratory II/1 credit
PHYS 101 General Physics I/4 credits (satisfied if taken for General Education Goal 6)
Or PHYS 201 University Physics I/4 credits (satisfied if taken for General Education Goal 6)
PHYS 102 General Physics II/4 credits
PHYS 202 University Physics II/4 credits
Electives/3 credits

Major Requirements (affiliated schools)
Fairfax Hospital/36 credits
Roanoke Memorial Hospital/42.5 credits
* PHYS 101 is a prerequisite for PHYS 102. PHYS 201 is a prerequisite for PHYS 202.

D. Total Credits Required for B.S. in Biology with Medical Technology Concentration affiliated with Fairfax Hospital/129
Total Credits Required for B.S. in Biology with Medical Technology Concentration affiliated with Roanoke Memorial Hospital/135.5

Students should take the biology assessment test in their junior year unless they plan to take their senior year at Longwood. Information concerning curriculum at the hospitals, expenses, financial aid, etc. is available.

BIOLOGY MAJOR, BS DEGREE

Preparation in Pre-Dentistry, Pre-Medical, Pre-Occupational Therapy, Pre-Physical Therapy, or Pre-Veterinary Medicine

This major allows exceptional students to complete 3 years of study at Longwood prior to matriculation in professional school programs (e.g., medical, dental, veterinary). Hours earned in the first year of a professional school program are used to complete the B.S. degree at Longwood.

Most students interested in pursuing health-related professions will be best served by the four-year health track option of the biology major program (described earlier in this catalog).

A. General Education Core Requirement/41 credits.

B. BS Degree Additional Degree Requirements /7 credits
Mathematics 171 or 261/3-4 credits
CHEM 111/4 credits

C. Major Core Requirements/49 credits.
BIOL 121 The Unity of Life/4 credits
BIOL 122 The Diversity of Life/4 credits
BIOL 206 Human Anatomy and Physiology/4 credits
BIOL 207 Human Anatomy and Physiology/4 credits
BIOL 304 Microbiology/4 credits
BIOL 324 Genetics/4 credits
BIOL 412 Biochemistry/4 credits
Biology elective at 300-400 level/4 credits
CHEM 111 Fundamentals of Chemistry I/4 credits (satisfied in Additional
Degree Requirements)
CHEM 112 Fundamentals of Chemistry II/4 credits
CHEM 305 Organic Chemistry I/3 credits
CHEM 306 Organic Chemistry II/3 credits
CHEM 307 Organic Chemistry Laboratory I/1 credit
CHEM 308 Organic Chemistry Laboratory II/1 credit
PHYS 101 General Physics I/4 credits (satisfied if taken as General Education Goal 6)
Or PHYS 201 University Physics I/4 credits (satisfied if taken as General Education Goal 6)
PHYS 102 General Physics II/4 credits
Or PHYS 202 University Physics II/4 credits
Elective/3 credits

Major Requirements from Professional Schools
30 semester hours credit of 300-400 level courses taken at the professional school (with grades of C or better) will be accepted as transfer credit by Longwood.

NOTE: 120 hours are required for graduation from Longwood with a cumulative average of 2.0, a 2.0 average in all major courses, and no grade below C- in biology courses required for the major. Candidates for this degree must also arrange to take the departmental comprehensive achievement test for assessment purposes. Students should plan to take this test in their junior year if they are to be enrolled at a professional school in their senior year.

HEALTH PRE-PROFESSIONAL PROGRAMS

Faculty

David W. Buckalew, PhD, Associate Professor of Biology and Director for Health Pre-Professional Programs

Through its health pre-professional curriculum, the Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences is successful in guiding students for careers in medical technology, dental hygiene, and nursing. By working closely with the Director of Health Pre-Professional Programs, students can prepare for transfer into programs at a professional institution. Students in these programs typically have the option of taking courses at Longwood for one to three years prior to matriculation in a professional program. Admission to these programs is highly competitive and is based on the student's academic performance during the pre-professional period as well as personal recommendations and related experiences. A minimum GPA of 3.0 is usually required for transfer. Completion of Longwood's pre-professional curriculum does not guarantee admission to the professional program. Links to professional schools and specific requirements may be found on the Department's website.

PRE-DENTAL HYGIENE
(VCU-MCV, ODU)

Requirements:
BIOL 121 The Unity of Life/4 credits
BIOL 206 Human Anatomy and Physiology/4 credits
BIOL 207 Human Anatomy and Physiology/4 credits
BIOL 304 Microbiology/4 credits
CHEM 111 Fundamentals of Chemistry I/4 credits
ENGL 150 Writing and Research/3 credits
MATH 171 Statistical Decision Making/3 credits
PSYC 101 Introduction to Psychology /3 credits
PSYC 251 Introduction to Biological Psychology/3 credits
SOCL 101 Principles of Sociology/3 credits
COMM 101 Oral Communication/3 credits
Choose three credits from the following:
ENGL 201 World Literature/3 credits
ENGL 202 British Literature/3 credits
ENGL 203 American Literature/3 credits
Electives/22 credits (MCV)*
TOTAL 63 credits

* For transfer to ODU, these electives must include 6 hours of humanities, 6 hours of history, 3 hours of philosophy, 3 hours of computer science, and CHEM 112.

PRE-NURSING
(MCV AND UVA)

Changes in the nursing curricula at both Medical College of Virginia's School of Nursing and the University of Virginia's School of Nursing have changed the programs to 1+3 programs where students should transfer to the professional nursing program after only one year at another college. This has made it very hard for students to transfer, and, therefore, Longwood no longer recruits pre-nursing students. Any student at Longwood that wishes to transfer to any nursing program should contact Dr. Donald Merkle for assistance.

EARTH SCIENCE PROGRAM

Faculty

Daniel L. Druckenbrod, PhD, Assistant Professor of Environmental Science
Joseph E. Garcia, PhD, Professor of Geography and Area Coordinator of Geography and Earth Science
David S. Hardin, PhD, Assistant Professor of Geography
Edward L. Kinman, PhD, Associate Professor of Geography


The Earth Science Program is designed to meet the general education of all students by strengthening their knowledge of the physical environment. The program also provides a solid foundation for those planning to pursue careers in environmental science.

EARTH SCIENCE MINOR

Students interested in pursuing an earth science minor should contact the Area Coordinator. Grades below C- are not accepted for the minor. The minor must include:

EASC 300 The Dynamic Planet/3 credits
15 credits of Earth Science electives
TOTAL 18 credits

EARTH SCIENCE COURSE DESCRIPTIONS (EASC)

A special fee is charged for all courses with laboratories.
General Education Course *
Writing Intensive Course **
Speaking Intensive Course ***

Earth Science 126 (Biology 126, Chemistry 126, Physics 126). Essential Laboratory Techniques. Good laboratory techniques, skills and safe practices are taught by actual practice in the laboratory. 1 credit.

Earth Science 275 (Geography 275). Introduction to Geographic Information Systems. Introduces concepts related to geographic information systems (GIS). Topics include cartography, coordinate systems and map projections, data classification and generalization, methods of thematic map symbolization, GIS application domains, data models and sources, analysis methods and output techniques. Lectures, readings and hands-on experience with GIS software. 3 lecture and one 1-hour lab periods.  4 credits.

Earth Science 292. Internship in Earth Science. A semester-long, on-the-job learning experience designed to apply the principles of earth science. 1-18 credits.

Earth Science 300. The Dynamic Planet. This course explores the major principles of the earth sciences, including geology, oceanography, meteorology and astronomy. The course focuses on earth-shaping processes, atmospheric dynamics, oceanographic circulation, and earth's place in the solar system. It is designed to develop an awareness and appreciation for these geosystems and their important interrelationships, as well as an understanding of the scientific approach to problem solving. Emphasis will be placed on interactions between systems in order to better understand the earth as a single, multidimensional system. For liberal studies majors and others seeking teaching endorsement. 2 lecture and one 2-hour lab period. 3 credits.

Earth Science 311, 312. Studies Abroad. Primarily intended for transfer of credit earned abroad in courses in earth science. 1-18 credits.

Earth Science 341 (Biology 341). General Ecology. The principles underlying the interrelations of groups of organisms with their environments, including the population, community, and ecosystem levels of organization. The lab normally includes local field trips. 3 lecture and one 3-hour lab periods; 4 credits.

Earth Science 342 (Biology 342, Geography 342). Terrestrial Biogeography.  Investigates the past and present geographic distribution of organisms on land.  This broad, interdisciplinary course will combine insights from biology, ecology, geography, and geology to examine changes in species distribution over space and time.  The course will address topics including: 1) biological patterns across the globe, 2) underlying physical factors controlling these patterns, 3) the role of earth's history in developing these patterns, 4) and implications for the conservation of plants and animals. 2 lecture periods and 1 two hour lab period. 4 credits.

Earth Science 353 (Geography 353). Geography of Virginia. Geographical appraisal of Virginia, including the geology, landforms, soils, climate, economic minerals, original vegetation, and human geography of Virginia, emphasizing settlement of population, agriculture, industries and transportation. 3 lecture periods.  3 credits. ***

Earth Science 354 (Geography 354). Hydrology. This course is an introductory survey of hydrology. Emphasis is on the general physical and chemical principles which govern hydrologic processes. Approaches to hydrologic measurements and the application of hydrologic analyses to water-resource management issues will be examined. A basic understanding of elementary mathematics, physics, physical geography, and chemistry is assumed. 3 lecture periods. 3 credits.

Earth Science 355 (Geography 355). Climatology. A study of the dynamics of the atmosphere as an energy system, its interactions with other parts of the Earth's physical system, and the effects of these interactions on human life and activity. Climate variations on global, regional, and local scales are investigated including methods of climate classification and techniques used to model future climatic conditions. 3 lecture periods. 3 credits.

Earth Science 358 (Geography 358). Map Design and Analysis. Emphasis is focused on construction of thematic maps at the preprofessional level and their incorporation in presentations of research. Modern techniques and processes are stressed along with rudimentary geographic information system design. Prerequisites: permission of instructor. 3 lecture and one 2-hour lab period; 4 credits.

Earth Science 363. Physical Oceanography. An introduction to the historical, geological, chemical and physical aspects of the oceans. 3 lecture and one 2-hour lab periods. 4 credits.

Earth Science 390. Directed or Independent Study. Must be approved by the head of the department. May be repeated as 391. 1-18 credits.

Earth Science 392. Internship in Earth Science. A semester-long, on-the-job learning experience designed to apply the principles of earth science. 1-18 credits.

Earth Science 490. Directed or Independent Study. Must be approved by the head of the department. May be repeated. 1-18 credits.

Earth Science 492. Internship in Earth Science. A semester-long, on-the-job learning experience designed to apply the principles of earth science. 1-18 credits.

Earth Science 495. Special Topics in Earth Science. Specialized courses on a variety of topics that may be offered periodically. 1-4 credits.

Earth Science 498. Honors Research in Earth Science. Students conduct research in earth science under the direction of a faculty member and the Senior Honors Research Committee. May be repeated as 499. 3 credits. **

GENERAL EDUCATION COURSE DESCRIPTIONS

GNED 162. Introduction to Environmental Science.  An interdisciplinary science course designed to introduce students to scientific study focused on the environment.  Fundamental concepts addressed by this course include ecosystems, plate tectonics, nutrient and water cycles, energy flow, and climate.  This course emphasizes the interrelationships of physical and biological components, the importance of the environment as a resource across cultures, and current challenges to understanding and maintaining our environment.  4 credits.*

GNED 261Exploring Science in Our World.  An interdisciplinary science course designed to involve students in learning science concepts related to world problems and studying issues important to our local community.  4 credits.*

GEOGRAPHY MINOR

Students interested in pursuing a geography minor should contact Dr. Hardin. Grades below C- are not accepted for the minor. The minor must include:

GEOG 201 Basic Elements of Geography/3 credits
GEOG 275 Introduction to Geographic Information Systems/4 credits
Choose minimum of 3 credits from the following:
GEOG 241 Cultural Geography/3 credits
GEOG 354 Hydrology/3 credits
GEOG 355 Climatology/3 credits
GEOG 358 Map Design and Analysis/4 credits
GEOG 410 Geomorphology/3 credits
Choose minimum of 3 credits from the following:
GEOG 220 Geography of South America/3 credits
GEOG 352 World Regional Geography/3 credits
GEOG 353 Geography of Virginia/3 credits
GEOG 403 Geography of Europe/3 credits
GEOG 404 Geography of the U.S. and Canada/3 credits
6 credits of Geography electives
TOTAL /19 credits

GEOGRAPHY COURSE DESCRIPTIONS (GEOG)

A special fee is charged for all courses with laboratories.
General Education Course *
Writing Intensive Course **
Speaking Intensive Course ***

Geography 201. Basic Elements of Geography. The scope and nature of geographic inquiry are treated. Special emphasis is placed on the significance of man, environment, and cultural processes in the organization of space on the earth's surface. 3 lecture periods. 3 credits. *

Geography 220. The Geography of South America. An examination of the natural and cultural landscape in the regional development of South America. 3 lecture periods. 3 credits. *

Geography 241. Cultural Geography. A study of the interaction between man and the land. Spatial and time elements are interwoven with selected topics such as man's religions, settlement patterns, political organization, economics, and population characteristics. 3 lecture periods. 3 credits.

Geography 275 (Earth Science 275). Introduction to Geographic Information Systems. Introduces concepts related to geographic information systems (GIS). Topics include cartography, coordinate systems and map projections, data classification and generalization, methods of thematic map symbolization, GIS application domains, data models and sources, analysis methods and output techniques. Lectures, readings and hands-on experience with GIS software. 3 lecture and one 1-hour lab periods.  4 credits.

Geography 292. Internship in Geography. A semester-long, on-the-job learning experience designed to apply the principles of geography. 1-18 credits.

Geography 295. Special Topics in Geography. Specialized courses on a variety of topics that may be offered periodically. 1-3 credits.

Geography 311, 312. Studies Abroad. Primarily intended for transfer of credit earned abroad in courses in geography. 1-18 credits.

Geography 342 (Biology 342,  Earth Science 342). Terrestrial Biogeography.  Investigates the past and present geographic distribution of organisms on land.  This broad, interdisciplinary course will combine insights from biology, ecology, geography, and geology to examine changes in species distribution over space and time.  The course will address topics including: 1) biological patterns across the globe, 2) underlying physical factors controlling these patterns, 3) the role of earth's history in developing these patterns, 4) and implications for the conservation of plants and animals. 2 lecture periods and 1 two hour lab period. 4 credits.

Geography 352. World Regional Geography. Analysis of the geography of major world regions, emphasizing the physical, cultural, and economic factors affecting life in each. Special consideration is given to current problems involving natural hazards, political developments, and cultural attributes of countries around the world. 3 lecture periods. 3 credits.

Geography 353 (Earth Science 353). Geography of Virginia. Geographical appraisal of Virginia, including the geology, landforms, soils, climate, economic minerals, original vegetation, and the human geography of Virginia, emphasizing settlement and population, agriculture, industries and transportation.  3 credits.  ***

Geography 354 (Earth Science 354). Hydrology. This course is an introductory survey of hydrology. Emphasis is on the general physical and chemical principles which govern hydrologic processes. Approaches to hydrologic measurements and the application of hydrologic analyses to water-resource management issues will be examined. A basic understanding of elementary mathematics, physics, physical geography, and chemistry is assumed. 3 lecture periods. 3 credits.

Geography 355 (Earth Science 355). Climatology. A study of the dynamics of the atmosphere as an energy system, its interactions with other parts of the Earth's physical system, and the effects of these interactions on human life and activity. Climate variations on global, regional, and local scales are investigated including methods of climate classification and techniques used to model future climatic conditions. 3 lecture periods. 3 credits. 

Geography 358 (Earth Science 358). Map Design and Analysis. Emphasis is focused on the construction of thematic maps at the preprofessional level and their incorporation in presentations of research. Computer-based techniques and processes are stressed along with rudimentary geographic information system design. Prerequisite: permission of instructor. 3 lecture periods. 4 credits.

Geography 390. Directed or Independent Study. Must be approved by the head of the department. May be repeated as 391. 1-18 credits.

Geography 392. Internship in Geography. A semester-long, on-the-job learning experience designed to apply the principles of geography. 1-18 credits.

Geography 403. Geography of Europe. Regional analysis of peninsular, western and central Europe and the Mediterranean Basin. Prerequisite: GEOG 201 or permission of instructor. 3 lecture periods. 3 credits.

Geography 404. Geography of the U.S. and Canada. Regional analysis of the United States and Canada, emphasizing the physical, cultural, and economic factors affecting the utilization of the several regions. Prerequisite: GEOG 201 or permission of instructor. 3 lecture periods. 3 credits.

Geography 490. Directed or Independent Study. Students will carry out study or research projects under supervision of an instructor. Six credits total may be earned. 1-3 credits.

Geography 492. Internship in Geography. A semester-long, on-the-job learning experience designed to apply the principles of geography. 1-18 credits.

Geography 495. Special Topics in Geography. Specialized courses on a variety of topics that maybe offered periodically. 1-3 credits.

Geography 498. Honors Research in Geography. Students conduct research in geography under the direction of a faculty member and the Senior Honors Research Committee. May be repeated as 499. 3 credits. **

Cooperative Programs

Cooperative Programs in the Medical Sciences

Longwood has cooperative programs with Roanoke Memorial Hospital and Fairfax Hospital, which make it possible for students to attend Longwood for three years and the fourth year in professional training in medical technology at the cooperating school. The students will earn a B.S. degree in biology with a concentration in medical technology from Longwood after the fourth year.

Pre-Professional Preparation for The Medical Sciences

This curriculum prepares students for admission to accredited schools of medicine, dentistry, veterinary medicine, medical technology, dental hygiene, physical therapy, occupational therapy, and pharmacy. Pre-professional advisors at Longwood will assist the student in selecting the appropriate courses to meet the admission requirements for any health related program.

Completion of the requirements of the Longwood pre-professional curriculum does not guarantee admission to the professional program. Admission to all professional programs is competitive. Admission is based on the student's performance during the pre-professional period, personal recommendations, related work experience, and a personal interview. A minimum GPA of 3.0 is usually required for transfer.