Text Size Default Text SizeDefault Text Size Large Text SizeLarge Text Size Largest Text SizeLargest Text Size Print Print this Page

Chemistry & Physics

Melissa C. Rhoten, Chair
Betty J. Woodie, Fiscal Manager
Raymond Heinrich, Director of Laboratory Services and Hazardous Waste Manager

The Department offers majors and minors in chemistry and physics. A student may major or minor in more than one area with the appropriate selection of courses. The Department also offers degrees in cooperation with other institutions in dual-degree engineering; pre-professional medical programs prepare students to transfer to professional schools in a number of health-oriented professions. The Department of Chemistry and Physics offers courses that satisfy the science requirements for general education in all degree programs of Longwood.

The aim of study in this department is to develop an interest in the natural world and to acquire the scientific habits of problem solving through experimentation, accurate observation, exact statements, and independent thought.

ASSESSMENT: The Department of Chemistry and Physics requires chemistry majors to take standardized exams distributed by the American Chemical Society in all areas of study (i.e., general, organic, inorganic, analytical, biochemistry, and physical chemistry). Senior physics majors take a comprehensive achievement test (MFAT). The purpose of these tests is to assess the progress of the majors and the effectiveness of the program.

CHEMISTRY PROGRAM

Faculty

Consuelo J. Alvarez, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Biology and Chemistry
Lee Friedman, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Chemistry
Gary P. Lutz, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Chemistry
Melissa C. Rhoten, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Chemistry
Keith B. Rider, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Chemistry

The chemistry major at Longwood provides graduates with the necessary background to pursue graduate studies or a career in industry, government, medicine, and other health-related fields. There are three tracks in the chemistry program - regular, professional, and pre-pharmacy. The regular program is designed for students taking chemistry along with a second major, preparing to enter the teaching profession, or preparing for medical or other health-related professional schools. The professional program is designed to meet the needs of students planning to enter a graduate program in chemistry or another of the sciences. The professional program is the one that prepares graduates for the greatest variety of post-Longwood opportunities. The pre-pharmacy program is designed to meet the specific entrance requirements for the Schools of Pharmacy at Shenandoah and Virginia Commonwealth Universities, but it is general enough to meet the requirements for most other pharmacy schools. Chemistry majors graduating from Longwood have completed advanced degrees at graduate schools in Virginia and other states. They also have been able to step into jobs in state and federal laboratories and industrial facilities.

The requirements for the chemistry major include courses in general chemistry, organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry, analytical chemistry, physical chemistry, and special interest electives. Students are encouraged to enroll in research courses in Chemistry in order to increase their competence in working in a laboratory. Superior students are encouraged to complete a chemistry Honors Project. The program in chemistry is rigorous, but it is flexible enough for students to take a second major. Students are encouraged to consider additional studies in biology, mathematics, physics, and computer science.

Students majoring in other areas may elect to minor in chemistry. The chemistry minor requires 23-24 semester hours: general chemistry (8 hours), organic chemistry (8 hours), quantitative analysis (4 hours), and a chemistry elective (3-4 hours).

No grade below C- in chemistry courses is accepted for the graduation requirements for the major or minor in chemistry.

Students may take a maximum of four credits total in Internship (Chemistry 292, 392, 492) and Research (Chemistry) courses for quality points (A, B, C, and D grades). Beyond four credits, such courses must be taken on a Pass/Fail basis.

A student may seek a secondary teaching endorsement in chemistry. This program consists of courses required for a chemistry major, and BIOL 121, EASC 300, EDUC 245, 260, 265, 370, 380, 430, 455, 484, 487, SCED 352, SPED 489, and the professional semester consisting of 12 hours in the senior year. If an additional endorsement in biology or physics is desired, the student must minor in that discipline and meet all state-mandated core requirements for that endorsement. Interested students should meet with Secondary Science Education faculty for advising on preparation for secondary science teaching.

CHEMISTRY MAJOR, Regular Track (BA, BS DEGREE)

A. General Education Core Requirement. 41 credits
PHYS 201 is strongly recommended for General Education Goal 6.

B. Additional Degree Requirements for BA Degree
Humanities. 3 credits
Foreign Language (202 Level or above). 3 credits
Additional Degree Requirements for B. S. Degree
MATH 262. 4 credits
CHEM 111. 4 credits

C. Major Requirements. 42-43 credits

Core Chemistry Courses. 33-34 credits
CHEM 112 Fundamentals of Chemistry II/4 credits
CHEM 232 Quantitative Analyses/4 credits
CHEM 270 Inorganic Chemistry/3 credits
CHEM 305 Organic Chemistry I Lecture/3 credits
CHEM 306 Organic Chemistry II Lecture/3 credits
CHEM 307 Organic Chemistry Laboratory I/1 credit
CHEM 308 Organic Chemistry Laboratory II/1 credit
CHEM 361 Chemistry Seminar I/1 credit
CHEM 461 Chemistry Seminar II/1 credit
PHYS 202 University Physics II/4 credits
MATH 261 Differential and Integral Calculus/4 credits (satisfies Goal 5 general education
requirement)
Non-teaching majors choose at least one credit from the following (satisfied in Goal 15 general education requirement)
CHEM 292 Internship in Chemistry/1-15 credits
CHEM 390 Directed or Independent Study/1-18 credits
CHEM 392 Internship in Chemistry/1-15 credits
CHEM 490 Directed or Independent Study/1-18 credits
CHEM 492 Internship in Chemistry/1-15 credits
CHEM 496 Research Projects in Chemistry/1-4 credits
CHEM 498 Honors Research in Chemistry/3 credits

Required Courses. 7-8 credits
Choose one course from the following:
CHEM 351 Instrumental Analysis I/4 credits
CHEM 352 Instrumental Analysis II/4 credits
Choose one course from the following:
CHEM 400 Physical Chemistry I/4 credits
CHEM 401 Quantum Mechanics/3 credits

Chemistry Electives. 1-6 credits.

D. General Electives for non-teaching majors. 30-33 credits

E. Secondary Teaching Endorsement, Grades 6-12. 46 credits.
Must take SCED 352/4 credits, BIOL 121/4 credits, and EASC 300/3 credits in addition to Professional Education requirements.

*For additional endorsement to teach Biology
Minor in Biology/24 credits

*For additional endorsement to teach Physics
Minor in Physics/24 credits

*Students seeking endorsement in these areas must meet criteria established by the State Department of Education.

F. Total credits required for BA, BS in Chemistry - 120
Total credits required for BA in Chemistry with secondary teaching endorsement - 135-136.
Total credits required for B.S. in Chemistry with secondary teaching endorsement - 132-133

CHEMISTRY MAJOR, Professional Track (BS Degree)

A. General Education Core Requirement. 41 credits
PHYS 201 is strongly recommended for General Education Goal 6.

B. Additional Degree Requirements for BS Degree - 7 credits
MATH 262/4 credits
CHEM 111/4 credits

C. Major Requirements. 46-51 credits.
Core Chemistry Courses (38 credits)
PHYS 202 University Physics II/4 credits
CHEM 112 Fundamentals of Chemistry II/4 credits
CHEM 232 Quantitative Analyses/4 credits
CHEM 270 Inorganic Chemistry/3 credits
CHEM 305 Organic Chemistry I Lecture/3 credits
CHEM 306 Organic Chemistry II Lecture/3 credits
CHEM 307 Organic Laboratory I/1 credit
CHEM 308 Organic Laboratory II/1 credit
CHEM 351 Instrumental Analysis I/4 credits
CHEM 361 Chemistry Seminar I/1 credit
CHEM 400 Physical Chemistry II/4 credits
CHEM 401 Quantum Mechanics/3 credits
CHEM 461 Chemistry Seminar II/1 credit
MATH 261 Differential and Integral Calculus/4 credits (satisfies Goal 5 general education requirement)
Choose at least one credit from the following (satisfies Goal 15 general education requirement)
CHEM 292 Internship in Chemistry/1-15 credits
CHEM 390 Directed or Independent Study/1-18 credits
CHEM 392 Internship in Chemistry/1-15 credits
CHEM 490 Directed or Independent Study/1-18 credits
CHEM 492 Internship in Chemistry/1-15 credits
CHEM 496 Research Projects in Chemistry/1-4 credits
CHEM 498 Honors Research in Chemistry/3 credits
Chemistry Electives (8-13 credits) choose from CHEM 300-498

D. General Electives for professional chemistry majors: 26 credits

E. Total credits required for BS in Professional Chemistry - 120

Chemistry Major, Pre-Pharmacy Track (BS Degree)

A. General Education Core Requirement. 41 credits
PHYS 201 is strongly recommended for General Education Goal 6.

B. Major Requirements. 42-43 credits.
Core Chemistry Courses. 34 credits
CHEM 111 Fundamentals of Chemistry I/4 credits
CHEM 112 Fundamentals of Chemistry II/4 credits
CHEM 232 Quantitative Analyses/4 credits
CHEM 270 Inorganic Chemistry/3 credits
CHEM 305 Organic Chemistry I Lecture/3 credits
CHEM 306 Organic Chemistry II Lecture/3 credits
CHEM 307 Organic Chemistry Lab I/1 credit
CHEM 308 Organic Chemistry Lab II/1 credit
CHEM 461 Chemistry Seminar II/1 credit
PHYS 202 University Physics II/4 credits
MATH 261 Differential and Integral Calculus/4 credits (satisfies Goal 5 general education
requirement)
Choose at least one credit from the following (satisfies Goal 15 general education requirement)
CHEM 292 Internship in Chemistry/1-15 credits
CHEM 390 Directed or Independent Study/1-18 credits
CHEM 392 Internship in Chemistry/1-15 credits
CHEM 490 Directed or Independent Study/1-18 credits
CHEM 492 Internship in Chemistry/1-15 credits
CHEM 496 Research Projects in Chemistry/1-4 credits
CHEM 498 Honors Research in Chemistry/3 credits
CHEM 499 Honors Research in Chemistry/3 credits

Required Courses. 7-8 credits
Choose one course from the following:
CHEM 351 Instrumental Analysis I/4 credits
CHEM 352 Instrumental Analysis II/4 credits
Choose one course from the following:
CHEM 400 Physical Chemistry I/4 credits
CHEM 401 Quantum Mechanics/3 credits

Chemistry Electives. 1-6 credits.

C. Additional Pharmacy School Requirements
(MCV/VCU). 18-22 credits
BIOL 121 The Unity of Life/4 credits
BIOL 122 The Diversity of Life/4 credits
MATH 171 Statistical Decision Making/3 credits
MATH 262 Differential and Integral Calculus/4 credits
COMM 101 Oral Communication/3 credits

Additional Pharmacy School Requirements (Shenandoah)
BIOL 121 The Unity of Life/4 credits
BIOL 122 The Diversity of Life/4 credits
BIOL 304 Microbiology/4 credits
MATH 262 Differential and Integral Calculus/4 credits
COMM 101 Oral Communications/3 credits
ECON 217/218 Micro- or Macroeconomics/3 credits

D. General Elective (either from Longwood or transferred from pharmacy school) 16-21 credits

E. Total credits required for BS in chemistry (pre-pharmacy) - 120 credits

CHEMISTRY MINOR

Students interested in pursuing a chemistry minor should contact the director of the chemistry program. Grades below C- are not accepted for the minor. The minor must include:

8 semester hours general chemistry
8 semester hours organic chemistry
4 semester hours analytical chemistry (CHEM 232)
3-4 semester hours chemistry electives (CHEM 270, 351, 371-376, 400, 401, 412)

CHEMISTRY COURSE DESCRIPTIONS

A special fee is charged for all courses with laboratories.
General Education Course *
Writing Intensive **
Speaking Intensive ***

Chemistry 101. General Chemistry. A study of the basic concepts of chemistry, including the structure of matter and the historical development that led to that understanding. Designed for students with no previous education in chemistry. Does not fulfill requirements for biology, chemistry or physics majors. 3 lecture and one 2-hour lab periods. 4 credits. *

Chemistry 111. Fundamentals of Chemistry I. An introduction to Chemistry that provides the foundation for further chemistry courses by focusing on the structure of matter (including nuclear chemistry, orbital theory, and stoichiometry), acid-base theory, concepts of chemical bonding and the periodic law. The importance of chemistry in everyday life as well as being the basis for other sciences will be outlined. 3 lecture, one 2-hour lab periods. Prerequisites: High School Chemistry or Placement test. Chemistry majors must make at least a C- in this course before taking advanced chemistry courses. 4 credits.

Chemistry 112. Fundamentals of Chemistry II. A continuation of CHEM 111 that examines the mechanisms by which chemists obtain information about reacting systems. Major concepts include: chemical equilibrium, thermodynamics, kinetics, gas laws, and electrochemistry. 3 lecture, one 2-hour lab periods. Prerequisite: CHEM 111, acceptable math placement score, MATH 164 or permission of instructor. Chemistry majors must make at least a C- in this course before taking advanced chemistry courses. 4 credits.

Chemistry 126. Essential Laboratory Techniques (BIOLOGY 126, EARTH SCIENCE 126, Physics 126). Good laboratory techniques, skills and safe practices are taught by actual practice in the laboratory. 1 credit.

Chemistry 205. Organic Chemistry I. First semester of a two-semester course designed to illustrate how the fundamental principles, basic classes of compounds and common reactions in organic chemistry relate to biological systems. Emphasis is placed on classes of compounds like alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, alkyl halides and alcohols. Prerequisite: CHEM 112. The course consists of three 1-hour lecture periods per week (3 credits). A one-credit laboratory class (CHEM 307) is also required in order to complete the degree requirements for organic chemistry.

Chemistry 206. Organic Chemistry II. Second semester of a two-semester course designed to illustrate how the fundamental principles, basic classes of compounds and common reactions in organic chemistry relate to biological systems. Other classes of compounds like carboxylic acids, amines, aldehydes and ketones are introduced. Special emphasis is placed on major classes of compounds found in living systems (Carbohydrates, Nucleic Acids, Proteins, and Lipids for example). Prerequisite: CHEM 205. The course consists of three 1-hour lecture periods per week (3 credits). A one-credit laboratory class (CHEM 308) is also required in order to complete the degree requirements for organic chemistry.

Chemistry 232. Quantitative Analyses. This course is designed to provide a sound physical understanding of the principles of analytical chemistry and show how these principles are applied in chemistry and related disciplines. Topics covered include statistics, chemical equilibrium, acid-base chemistry, titrimetry, potentiometry, and introduction to analytical separations. The laborabory component of this course focuses on gravimetric and volumteric methods of chemical analysis. 2 lecture, one 4-hour laboratory periods. Prerequisite: CHEM 112. 4 credits.**

Chemistry 270. Inorganic Chemistry and Qualitative Inorganic Analysis. This course provides an extensive description of the chemical elements and their compounds, occurrences, manufacture, reactions, and relevance for society. How atomic and molecular electronic structure influence chemical properties will be discussed. Students will be introduced to theories of bonding, symmetry, group theory, and coordination chemistry. 3 lecture periods. Prerequisite: CHEM 112. 3 credits.

Chemistry 292. Internship in Chemistry. A semester-long, on-the-job learning experience designed to apply the principles of chemistry. 3-15 credits.

Chemistry 295. Special Topics in Chemistry. Specialized courses on a variety of topics that may be offered periodically. 1-4 credits.

Chemistry 305. Organic Chemistry I. First semester of a two-semester course designed to provide a sound foundation in the fundamental principles and basic reactions of organic chemistry. The course illustrates how three-dimensional structure effects the physical properties and the reactivity of organic compounds. Simple hydrocarbons (alkanes, alkenes, and alkynes) and alkyl halides are used to introduce the concepts of structural isomerism, stereoisomerism, reaction kinetics, thermodynamics, reaction mechanisms, and limited synthetic strategies. Prerequisite: CHEM 112. The course consists of three 1-hour lecture periods per week (3 credits). A one-credit laboratory class (CHEM 307) is also required to complete the organic chemistry requirement.

Chemistry 306. Organic Chemistry II. Second semester of a two-semester course designed to provide a sound foundation in the fundamental principles and basic reactions of organic chemistry. Increasingly complex compounds like alcohols, amines, substituted aromatic compounds, carboxylic acids and carboxylic acid derivatives are used to provide a heightened emphasis on reaction mechanisms and synthetic strategies. Structural elucidation techniques (1H NMR, 13C NMR, IR, and MS) are introduced and are used to identify organic compounds. Prerequisite: CHEM 305 The course consists of three 1-hour lecture periods per week (3 credits). A one-credit laboratory class (CHEM 308) is also required to complete the organic chemistry requirement.

Chemistry 307. Organic chemistry Laboratory I. First semester of a two-semester laboratory course designed to provide a sound foundation in the basic methods of performing organic chemical reactions. The course introduces glassware and reaction techniques used in synthetic organic chemistry. The course further illustrates methods used for monitoring chemical reactions, and for isolation and purification of reaction products. Prerequisite: CHEM 112. The course consists of one 3-hour laboratory period per week (1 credit). The course may be taken concurrently with or after CHEM 205 or CHEM 305.

Chemistry 308. Organic Chemistry Laboratory II. Second semester of a two-semester laboratory course designed to provide a sound foundation in the basic methods of performing organic chemical reactions. The course strongly emphasizes NMR, IR and MS spectral analysis/identification of organic compounds and introduces multi-step chemical reactions. Prerequisite: CHEM 307 and concurrently or after CHEM 206 or 306. The course consists of one 3-hour laboratory period per week (1 credit).

 Chemistry 311, 312. Studies Abroad. Primarily intended for transfer of credit earned abroad in courses in chemistry. 1-18 credits.

Chemistry 351. Instrumental Analysis I. The theory of instrumental techniques in analytical chemistry, including optical and electrochemical methods of analysis. Develops familiarity with both instrument physics and the physical chemistry of measurement. Prerequisite: CHEM 232. 3 lecture, one 3-hour lab periods. 4 credits.**

Chemistry 352. Instrumental Analysis II. A continuation of CHEM 351, including chromatographic and mass spectrometric methods of analysis. Develops familiarity with both instrument physics and the physical chemistry of measurement. Prerequisite: CHEM 232. 3 lecture, one 3-hour lab periods. 4 credits.**

Chemistry 361.  Chemistry Seminar I.  This course is designed to instruct students in reading and searching the chemical literature in order to prepare a research paper in a style approved for selected ACS journals.  Students are also instructed in the creation of a professional portfolio and are required to assemble this document for review by professional chemists.  Students must have junior status to enroll in this course.  1 credit. **

Chemistry 371-376. Special Courses in Chemistry. Specialized courses for small groups of students. The course titles and descriptions listed below represent some of the special areas covered. 1-4 credits.

Advanced Organic Chemistry 371. An advanced study of organic reactions and mechanisms. Prerequisites: CHEM 305 and 306. 3 lecture periods; 3 credits.

Environmental Chemistry 372. A study of the fundamental problems of chemistry pollution of the soil, water, and atmosphere. Prerequisite: CHEM 305 or permission of instructor. 2 lecture and one 3-hour laboratory periods; 3 credits.

Advanced Inorganic Chemistry 373. The structures, properties, reactions and uses of inorganic compounds. Prerequisite: CHEM 270 or permission of instructor. 3 lecture periods; 3 credits.

Laboratory Safety 374. A study of laboratory safety equipment, hazards from chemical reaction, toxins, carcinogens, corrosives, and radiation. 2 lecture periods; 2 credits.

Polymer Chemistry 375. A study of chemical reactions used to synthesize modifications in polymer properties, techniques to characterize polymers, and natural polymers. 3 lecture periods; 3 credits.

Chemistry 376. Advanced Laboratory Techniques. A study of modern laboratory techniques. 3 credits.

Chemistry 390. Directed or Independent Study. Must be approved by the head of the department. May be repeated as 391. 1-18 credits.

Chemistry 392. Internship in Chemistry. A semester-long, on-the-job learning experience designed to apply the principles of chemistry. 3-15 credits

Chemistry 400. Physical Chemistry I. A study of thermodynamics, equilibria, kinetics, solution properties, and electrochemistry. Prerequisite: CHEM 232; MATH 261 or 267, or permission of instructor. 3 lecture, one 2-hour lab periods. 4 credits. **

Chemistry 401. Quantum Mechanics. A study of elementary quantum mechanics, atomic and molecular structure, spectroscopy, and statistical mechanics. Prerequisites: MATH 262 or 267; or permission of instructor. 3 lecture, one 2-hour lab periods. 3 credits.

Chemistry 412 (BIOLOGY 412). Biochemistry. A study of the chemistry of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids in biological systems. Prerequisite: CHEM 206 or CHEM 306 or permission of instructor. 3 lecture periods; 4 credits.

Chemistry 461. Chemistry Seminar II.  This course is designed to instruct students in reading and searching the chemical literature in order to prepare a literature seminar.  Students must have junior status to enroll in this course. 1 credit. ***

Chemistry 467. Scientific Instrument Design and Fabrication. Design and actual fabrication of scientific instruments including glass, metal, wood, plastic, and electronic instruments. Course involves one or more of the following: glass working techniques, precision milling machine and lathe operations, machine shop techniques, electronic testing of circuits, and breadboard and hardwiring electronic circuits. Each semester course will emphasize different projects. May be repeated for credit. One 3-hour lab period per credit. 1-4 credits.

Chemistry 481. Advanced Chemical Laboratory Problem Solving. Laboratory practice involving the use of instruments and other techniques to solve chemical problems. Problems will be presented that do not have an obvious method or solution. Students must research and develop their own path to solving each problem and must then complete them. One 6-hour laboratory period. 2 credits.

Chemistry 490. Directed or Independent Study. Must be approved by the head of the department. May be repeated. 1-18 credits.

Chemistry 492. Internship in Chemistry. A semester long, on-the-job learning experience designed to apply the principles of chemistry. 3-15 credits.

Chemistry 495. Special Topics in Chemistry. Specialized courses on a variety of topics that may be offered periodically. 1-4 credits.

Chemistry 496. Research Projects in Chemistry. Students will carry out research projects under individual supervision of an instructor. The nature of the project will depend on the interest and needs of the student. Consent of the instructor and approval of the department head are prerequisites for enrollment. May be repeated. One 3 hour lab period per credit. 1-4 credits. ***

Chemistry 498. Honors Research in Chemistry. Students conduct research in chemistry under the direction of a faculty member and the Senior Honors Research Committee. May be repeated as 499. 3 credits.**

Chemistry 500. Chemistry of the Environment. This course addresses the science of the complex interactions that occur among terrestrial, atmospheric, aquatic, living, and anthropological environments. Interactions are addressed from diverse perspectives including chemistry, biology, ecology, and governmental regulations. Emphasis is placed on the study of the sources, reactions, transport, effects and fates of chemical species in water, soil, air, and living environments. The role that technology plays in these systems is also discussed. Prerequisite: CHEM 551. 3 credits.

Chemistry 551. Instrumental Analysis Projects. Theory of optical and electrochemical methods of chemical analysis applied to environmental, industrial, or medical problems. Practical laboratory methods emphasized. Prerequisite: CHEM 232 or permission of instructor. 4 credits.

Chemistry 552. Chromatographic Analysis Projects. Theory of chromatographic methods of separation and chemical analysis applied to environmental, industrial, or medical problems. Practical laboratory methods emphasized. Prerequisite: CHEM 232 or permission of instructor. 4 credits.

PHYSICS PROGRAM

Faculty

Rodney Dunning, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of Physics
Wayne K. Meshejian, M.S., Assistant Professor of Physics
Michelle Parry, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Physics and Area Coordinator of Physics
Charles D. Ross, Ph.D., Professor of Physics and Dean, College of Arts and Sciences

The physics major at Longwood provides fundamental training in several areas of physics so that graduates may pursue graduate study or careers in research, industry, teaching, or engineering. Those who wish to major in physics may choose from the following options:

traditional physics major for students interested in preparation for graduate work or careers in research, industry, or teaching.

pre-medical/biophysics concentration for students interested in preparation for medical school or graduate work in biophysics.

pre-engineering for students interested in cooperative engineering programs.

A minimum of 31 semester hours credit in physics is required for all physics majors. Many physics majors elect to double major in both physics and some other discipline. Also, a student majoring in another field may choose to minor in physics. The minor program requires 24 semester hours in physics. No grade below C- in physics courses is accepted for the major or minor in physics.

Students may take a maximum of four credits total in Internship (Biology/Chemistry/Physics 292, 392, 492) and Research (Biology/Chemistry/Physics 496) courses for quality points (A, B, C, and D grades). Beyond four credits, such courses must be taken on a Pass/Fail basis.

A student may seek a secondary teaching endorsement in physics. This program consists of courses required for a physics major, and BIOL 121, EASC 300, EDUC 245, 260, 265, 370, 380, 430, 455, 484, 487, SCED 352, SPED 489, and the professional semester consisting of 12 hours in the senior year. If an additional endorsement in biology or chemistry is desired, the student must minor in that discipline and meet all state-mandated core requirements for that endorsement. Interested students should meet with Secondary Science Education faculty for advising on preparation for secondary science teaching.

PHYSICS MAJOR, BA, BS DEGREE

A. General Education Core Requirement. 41 credits
Physics Majors are strongly encouraged to take PHYS 201 to fulfill General Education Goal 6 Requirements.

B. Additional Degree Requirements for BA Degree - 6 credits
Additional Degree Requirements for BS Degree - 7 credits

MATH 261 The Differential and Integral Calculus/4 credits
CHEM 111 Fundamentals of Chemistry I/4 credits

C. Major Requirements. 46 credits.
CHEM 111 Fundamentals of Chemistry I/4 credits
(satisfied by Additional Degree Requirements)
CHEM 112 Fundamentals of Chemistry II/4 credits
MATH 262 The Differential and Integral Calculus/4 credits
MATH 361 Calculus III/4 credits
MATH 460 Differential Equations/3 credits
PHYS 202 University Physics II/4 credits **
PHYS 321 Modern Physics/4 credits
PHYS 332 Classical Electricity and Magnetism/4 credits
PHYS 342 Electronics and Circuit Theory/4 credits
PHYS 352 Mechanics/4 credits
Physics Elective/4 credits
** Phys 201 is a prerequisite to Phys 202. Students are strongly encouraged to take it to fulfill General Education Goal 6.

CHOOSE ONE
Concentration I (Physics)
PHYS 400 Unifying Principles of Physics/4 credits
PHYS 401 Quantum Mechanics/3 credits

Concentration II (Engineering)
Engineering Electives/7 credits - fulfilled at transfer institution

Recommended elective for all physics majors: CMSC 160 Introduction to Programming/3 credits

D. General electives for non-teaching majors - 26-27.

E. Secondary Teaching Endorsement, Grades 6-12. 46 credits.
Must take SCED 352/4 credits, BIOL 121/4 credits, and EASC 300/3 credits in addition to Professional Education requirements.

*For additional endorsement to teach Biology
Minor in Biology/24 credits.

* For additional endorsement to teach Chemistry
Minor in Chemistry/24 credits.

* Students seeking an endorsement in these areas must meet criteria established by the State Department of Education.

F. Total credits required for BS/BA in Physics - 120
Total credits required for BA in Physics with Secondary Teaching Endorsement - 139
Total credits required for BS in Physics with Secondary Teaching Endorsement - 140

PHYSICS MAJOR, BS or BA DEGREE
Pre-Medicine and Biophysics Concentration

A. General Education Core Requirement. 41 credits
Physics majors with concentrations in Pre-Medicine and Biophysics are strongly encouraged to take PHYS 201 to fulfill General Education Goal 6 requirements.

B. Additional Degree Requirements for BA degree - 6 credits
B S Degree Additional Degree Requirements - 7 credits

MATH 261 The Differential and Integral Calculus/4 credits
CHEM 111 Fundamentals of Chemistry I/4 credits

C. Major Requirements. 74 credits
BIOL 121 The Unity of Life/4 credits
BIOL 122 Diversity of Life/4 credits
BIOL 304 Microbiology/4 credits
or BIOL 412 Biochemistry/4 credits
BIOL 306 Vertebrate Physiology/4 credits
BIOL 324 Genetics/4 credits
CHEM 111 Fundamentals of Chemistry I/4 credits
(satisfied by Additional Degree requirements)
CHEM 112 Fundamentals of Chemistry II/4 credits
CHEM 205 Organic Chemistry I for Biologists/3 credits
or CHEM 305 Organic Chemistry I/3 credits
CHEM 206 Organic Chemistry II for Biologists/3 credits
or CHEM 306 Organic Chemistry II/3 credits
CHEM 307 Organic Chemistry I Lab/1 credit
CHEM 308 Organic Chemistry II Lab/1 credit
MATH 262 The Differential and Integral Calculus/4 credits
MATH 361 Calculus III/4 credits
MATH 460 Differential Equations/3 credits
PHYS 202 University Physics II/4 credits
PHYS 321 Modern Physics/4 credits
PHYS 332 Classical Electricity and Magnetism/4 credits
PHYS 342 Electronics and Circuit Theory/4 credits
PHYS 352 Mechanics/4 credits
PHYS 400 Unifying Principles of Physics/4 credits
PHYS 401 Quantum Mechanics/3 credits
Physics Elective/4 credits
** PHYS 201 is a prerequisite to PHYS 202. Students are encouraged to take it as General Education Goal 6.

Recommended elective for all physics majors:
CMSC 160 Introduction to Programming/3 credits.

D. Total credits required for a BA in Physics with Pre-Medicine or Biophysics Concentration - 121

E. Total credits required for a BS in Physics with Pre-Medicine or Biophysics Concentration - 122

PHYSICS COURSE DESCRIPTIONS

A special fee is charged for all courses with laboratories.
General Education Course *
Writing Intensive Course **
Speaking Intensive Course ***

Physics 101. General Physics I. An introduction to the basic concepts of mechanics. 3 lecture and one 2-hour lab periods. 4 credits. *

Physics 102. General Physics II. A study of heat, sound, light, electricity and magnetism. Prerequisite: PHYS 101.  3 lecture and one 2-hour lab periods. 4 credits.

Physics 126. Essential Laboratory Techniques (BIOLOGY 126, Chemistry 126, EARTH SCIENCE 126). Good laboratory techniques, skills and safe practices are taught by actual practice in the laboratory. 1 credit.

Physics 201. University Physics I. Similar to PHYS 101, but with the calculus used throughout. Physics majors and minors must make at least a C- in this course before taking advanced physics courses.  3 lecture and one 2-hour lab periods. 4 credits. *

Physics 202. University Physics II. Similar to PHYS 102, but with the calculus used throughout. Prerequisite: PHYS 201. Prerequisite or corequisite:  MATH 262.  Physics majors and minors must make at least a C- in this course before taking advanced physics courses. 3 lecture and one 2-hour lab periods. 4 credits.

Physics 292. Internship in Physics. A semester-long, on-the-job learning experience designed to apply the principles of physics. 1-18 credits.

Physics 295. Special Topics in Physics.   Specialized courses on a variety of topics that may be offered periodically. 1-4 credits.

Physics 311, 312. Studies Abroad. Primarily intended for transfer of credit earned abroad in courses in physics. 1-18 credits.

Physics 321. Modern Physics. A survey of modern developments in electron, atomic, and nuclear physics. Prerequisites: PHYS 101, 102 or 201, 202. Prerequisite or corequisite: MATH 261. 3 lecture and one 2-hour lab periods. 4 credits. **

Physics 322. Nuclear and Particle Physics. A continuation of PHYS 321. Prerequisites: PHYS 101, 102 or 201, 202, 321. Prerequisite or corequisite: MATH 262. 3 lecture and one 2-hour lab periods. 4 credits.

Physics 324. Thermodynamics. A study of thermal properties of matter; phenomena involved in flow of heat and performance of work. Kinetic theory and statistical mechanics are included. Prerequisites: PHYS 101, 102 or 201, 202. Prerequisite or corequisite: MATH 262. 4 lecture periods. 4 credits.

Physics 326. Optics. A study of the nature and behavior of light and other electro-magnetic radiation. Prerequisites: PHYS 101, 102 or 201, 202, MATH 261. 3 lecture and one 2-hour lab periods. 4 credits.

Physics 332. Classical Electricity and Magnetism. A study of electric and magnetic fields, potentials, resistance, inductance, and capacitance, polarization, magnetic materials, Maxwell's equations. Prerequisite: MATH 361, PHYS 102 or PHYS 202. 4 lecture periods. 4 credits.

Physics 342. Electronics and Circuit Theory. An introduction to electric circuits that includes Thevenin and Norton equivalent circuits and phasors, and an introduction to electronics that includes D.C. and A.C. analysis and synthesis of transistor amplifier circuits, OP amps, and elementary logic circuits. Prerequisite: PHYS 102 or PHYS 202 and MATH 261. 3 lecture and one 2-hour lab periods. 4 credits. **

Physics 352. Mechanics. A mathematical study of motion using Newtonian and Lagrangian techniques. Prerequisites: PHYS 101, 102 or 201, 202. Prerequisite or corequisite: MATH 460. 4 lecture periods. 4 credits.

Physics 390. Directed or Independent Study. Must be approved by the head of the department. May be repeated as 391. 1-18 credits.

Physics 392. Internship in Physics. A semester-long, on-the-job learning experience designed to apply the principles of physics. 1-18 credits.

Physics 400. Unifying Principles of Physics. A course that unified the topics covered in mechanics, electricity and magnetism, thermodynamics, and quantum mechanics by studying the principles that shape our understanding of the universe, the major contributions to physics will be revisited by examining multi-topic problems. Open only to junior and senior physics majors and minors. Prerequisites: PHYS 332, PHYS 352, PHYS 324, PHYS 401 or by permission of instructor. 3 lecture and one 2 hour laboratory periods. 4 credits. ***

Physics 401. Quantum Mechanics. A study of elementary quantum mechanics, atomic and molecular structure, spectroscopy, and statistical mechanics. Prerequisites: PHYS 202, MATH 262 or 267; or permission of instructor. 3 lecture, one 2-hour lab periods. 3 credits.

Physics 490. Directed or Independent Study. Must be approved by the head of the department. May be repeated. 1-18 credits.

Physics 492. Internship in Physics. A semester-long, on-the-job learning experience designed to apply the principles of physics. Enrollment in the course is based on permission of the Director of Physics and Dual-degree Engineering Programs and the coordinator at the internship location, and is subject to availability. Prerequisites: 1 - 15 credits. **

Physics 495. Special Topics in Physics. Specialized courses on a variety of topics that may be offered periodically. 1-4 credits.

Physics 496. Research Projects in Physics. Students will carry out research projects under individual supervision of an instructor. The nature of the project will depend on the interest and needs of the student. Consent of instructor and approval of department head is prerequisite for enrollment. May be repeated. 1-4 credits. ***

Physics 498. Honors Research in Physics. Students conduct research in physics under the direction of a faculty member and the Senior Honors Research Committee. May be repeated as 499. 3 credits. **

DUAL-DEGREE ENGINEERING PROGRAM

BS in Physics Granted by Longwood and a second degree:

MS Degree in Engineering Granted by University of Virginia or Old Dominion University

or

MS Degree in Applied Physics Granted by Christopher Newport University

or

BS Degree in Engineering Granted by Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University, Old Dominion University, or The University of Tennessee

Students in the Dual-Degree Engineering Program attend Longwood for the first three years to complete courses listed under A, B and C of the Longwood Physics degree requirements. The student's work in these three years will also fulfill the requirements of the first two years of the B.S. degree at ODU and Virginia Tech. At the beginning of the fourth year, provided the appropriate academic requirements have been met (see following note), the student transfers to the second institution and takes appropriate engineering (or physics at CNU) courses as designated by the adviser at the second institution. When the necessary Longwood requirements are taken at the second institution and the credit hours are transferred back, the student will be awarded the B.S. degree in Physics from Longwood. When all prescribed courses are fulfilled at the second institution, the student is awarded the second degree by that institution. Normally, in roughly a five-year period, the student receives two degrees, one from each institution.

The course requirements for the Dual-Degree Engineering Program are identical to Longwood Physics major for the first 3 years, except for the specific electives below:

Required Electives:

CNU:
CMSC 160 Introduction to Programming/3 credits
CMSC 162 Data Structures in Advanced Programming/3 credits

Solid State Physics Option:
CHEM 400 Physical Chemistry I/3 credits
PHYS 326 Optics/4 credits

Instrumental and Advanced Computer Systems Option:
CMSC 301 Computer Organization and Assembler Language Programming/3 credits
CMSC 306 Computer Organization/3 credits
CMSC 310 Introduction to Operating Systems and Computer Architecture/3 credits

Recommended Electives:
ODU:
MATH 343 Linear Algebra/3 credits

UVA:
CMSC 160 Introduction to Computer Programming/3 credits
MATH 300 A Transition to Advanced Mathematics/3 credits
MATH 343 Linear Algebra/3 credits
MATH 371 Introduction to Probability and Statistics/3 credits
MATH 461 Senior Seminar/1 credit
MATH 481 Complex Analysis/3 credits

NOTES: 120 hours are required for graduation from Longwood with a cumulative average of 2.0 and with no grade below C- in a physics course. General elective hours for the Longwood physics requirements that are not fulfilled at the time of transfer will be taken at the second institution. Longwood will award transfer credit for courses passed with grades of C or above at the second institution.

Students transferring to UVA or CNU may elect to remain at Longwood for seven semesters before transferring.

The ODU BS program will only accept certain Longwood General Education courses for transfer. Students electing this option should see their academic advisor for details.

In the MS programs, the student's Longwood academic average must be B or better (a grade point average of 3.25 or better is recommended for UVa), both overall and in mathematics and physics, to be eligible for transfer. The student applies to the second institution for admission as a conditional graduate student. At the second institution, the student completes a sufficient number of appropriate undergraduate courses to fulfill Longwood's 120 hour degree requirement. Providing that the average in this course work is B or better and that a satisfactory score has been obtained on the Graduate Record Examination (which may be taken at any time prior to the awarding of the Longwood physics degree), the student is admitted unconditionally into the graduate program at the second institution.

For the Virginia Tech and University of Tennessee B.S. programs, a student must have a 3.0 academic average at Longwood (both overall and in mathematics and physics) to be eligible for transfer.

For transfer to UVA and Virginia Tech., all coursework listed under A, B, and C of the Longwood physics degree requirements must be completed at Longwood before transfer. At the other institutions, some of this coursework may be taken at the second institution with prior permission of authorities at both institutions.

PHYSICS MINOR

Students interested in pursuing a physics minor should contact the Area Coordinator of the physics program. No grade below C- is acceptable in minor courses.

The minor must include:

8 semester hours general physics
16 semester hours advanced physics courses
TOTAL/24 hours

NOTE: MATH 261, 262 required in most of these courses.

Cooperative Programs

Cooperative Dual-degree Program in Engineering

Longwood University has cooperative programs with Old Dominion University, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, and the University of Tennessee, which make it possible for students to earn either a BS or BA degree in physics from Longwood and a BS degree in engineering from the cooperating university.

Longwood has cooperative programs with the University of Virginia and Old Dominion University, which make it possible for students to earn a BS or BA degree in physics from Longwood University and a MS in engineering from the cooperating university. Longwood has a cooperative program with Christopher Newport University, which makes it possible for a students to earn a BS or BA in physics from Longwood and a MS. in applied physics from cooperating university.

Pre-Professional Preparation for The Medical Sciences

This curriculum prepares students for admission to accredited schools of medicine, dentistry, veterinary medicine, medical technology, dental hygiene, physical therapy, occupational therapy, and pharmacy. Pre-professional advisors at Longwood will assist the student in selecting the appropriate courses to meet the admission requirements for any health related program.

Completion of the requirements of the Longwood pre-professional curriculum does not guarantee admission to the professional program. Admission to all professional programs is competitive. Admission is based on the student's performance during the pre-professional period, personal recommendations, related work experience, and a personal interview. A minimum GPA of 3.0 is usually required for transfer.

Southside Higher Education Consortium

The variety of courses available to Longwood students is increased by a cooperative arrangement with Hampden-Sydney College and with the Southside Higher Education Consortium which includes Longwood, Hampden-Sydney, Southside Virginia Community College, and Saint Paul's College. Under the terms of the arrangement, full-time degree program students in any one of the participating institutions may enroll in certain courses at any other of the participating institutions without added expense.

Students desiring to take advantage of this program must secure approval from their major advisor and from the registrar at their home institution before they are enrolled at the other institution. Students are registered for courses based on enrollment limits at the host institution. Grades for courses taken under the consortium agreement are maintained only at the home institution. Transportation to the host institution must be arranged by each student.